Porcelain stoneware - Wikipedia
Porcelain stoneware is characterised by a very low water absorption of less than 0.5%. Thus porcelain stoneware is a further development of stoneware tiles, whose water absorption lies under 3%. Porcelain stoneware is manufactured by dry-pressing fine processed ceramic raw materials with large proportions of quartz, feldspar and other fluxes under high pressure. Afterwards, the body is baked at high temperatures (1,200 – 1,300°C) in a roller passage kiln.
Due to its high breaking and wear resistance properties porcelain, stoneware is often used in public areas and areas where wear conditions are particularly extreme.
At the beginning of the development, porcelain stoneware has always been manufactured unglazed.
The low porosity permits polishing a tile and thus creating an extraordinary beautiful and brilliant surface.
By applying ceramic powders of different colours or using soluble salts, unglazed porcelain stoneware can be decorated in different ways.
However, the variety of possible visual effects is limited. Therefore it becomes more and more usual to manufacture glazed and imprinted porcelain stoneware. A huge variety of decors can be created due to the properties provided by this material. For instance, the most different types of stones, woods, fabrics, cork, leather etc. can be imitated.
Glazed porcelain stoneware differs from glazed stoneware by a slightly higher breaking resistance and a complete frost resistance. Other properties, such as, for instance, chemical resistance, slip resistance and scratch hardness may vary significantly depending on the type of surface.
Cleaning, protection, care
of porcelain stoneware polished and matt
- 1. Newly laid areas
Adherence of dirt on hardly visible remains of joint material or adhesives makes later maintenance cleaning difficult. Thus all floor coverings should be cleaned with a standardcement residue remover. Residues of plastic containing joints can be removed with anintensive cleaner.
- 2. Preliminary cleaning in case of protective treatment of used and soiled tiles
Treatment of a used floor covering requires a thorough preliminary cleaning. All impurities and maintenance agents have to be removed from the surface and the pores. For this purpose, a commercially available intensive cleaner should be used under observance of the instructions for use.
- 3. Protective treatment against stains
Depending on the type of use of the floor covering, stains may appear despite the exceptional properties of porcelain stoneware tiles. A single treatment with a standard protective impregnation reduces delicateness and increases ease of care. Ingress of dirt, oil, grease, wax, paint etc. can be significantly reduced, so that hardly any stains appear or stains can be easily removed. This treatment is recommended for newly laid floor coverings with a polished surface. Whether or not this treatment is suitable for structured or matt surfaces has to be checked. In most cases an impregnation of very light or dark coloured floor coverings is effective.
Some manufacturers offer factory-sealed matt porcelain stoneware tiles.
- 4. Regular maintenance care
Adding a standard maintenance and cleaning agent to the floor-cleaning water is recommended for regular maintenance care.
- 5. Additional maintenance care
From time to time floor coverings, where wear conditions are particularly extreme, require a basic cleaning. For this purpose, adding an intensive cleaner to the cold or lukewarm floor-cleaning water is recommended. In case of lime scale or spots of rust, a sanitary cleaning agent should be used.
Cleaning and care of glazed tiles
Glazed tiles are available in many different colours and dimensions. Basically, two types can be distinguished:
Wall tiles, which in technical language are called stoneware tiles, and floor tiles, which may be manufactured from stoneware or porcelain stoneware. What they all have in common is a glazed, closed surface, which is very non-sensitive and low-maintenance. Here are some suggestions for the care of these coverings:
- 1. First cleaning of new areas
If there are remains of grout on the surface, wiping the covering once with a standardsanitary cleaning agent under observance of the manufacturer's instructions for use is recommended.
- 2. Cleaning of heavily soiled areas
Persistent dirt, remains of caring products, oily and greasy residues etc. can be easily removed with a basic cleaning agent. It is recommended to clean sanitary areas such as bathrooms, showers, toilets with a sanitary cleaning agent to avoid lime scale and to dispose of incrustations.
- 3. Protection and care
Glazed tiles can be impregnated but don't have to and they don't have to be protected in another way. Products containing wax and acrylic are not suitable as they may form layers. These layers bind soil and make maintenance cleaning more difficult. Cement joints are porous and soil easily. By impregnating them with a joint protection, soiling can be reduced and cleaning will be easier.
Please note: Always follow the manufacturer's instructions of use.